Belgium at a Glance
Working in Belgium
- The service and trade sectors employ the largest number of people.
- There are different work permits, each applicable to a different need. Getting a work permit is usually the employer’s responsibility.
- The taxation rate depends on your residency status and EU nationals are protected against double taxation.
- There are different sectors of social security; expats from EU/EEA countries enjoy the same rights as Belgian nationals.
A large number of expats working in Belgium are directly or indirectly employed by EU institutions or NATO. Together with its numerous affiliates and sub-organizations, NATO accounts for nearly 4,000 international military and civilian staff in Belgium. In fact, the SHAPE (Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe) community near Mons is a nearly self-sufficient village with residential areas, shops, schools, sports facilities, a library, and a cinema.
Thanks to its international character, Belgium has also become a preferred location for international business. Expats in Belgium add to the country’s highly productive workforce and help drive this modern, private-enterprise economy. Apart from Brussels, expats often settle in Antwerp, the world’s most important diamond trading center.
The Monopoly of the Service Sector and Trade
Like so much else in Belgium, the economy is also of a dual nature: people working in Belgium’s Flemish regions profit from a diversified industrial and commercial economic base; on the other hand, the Walloon economy in the French-speaking region is somewhat less dynamic.
The service sector is the main economic driver in all parts of the country, both with regard to GDP and employment figures. Indeed, the service sector composes almost 77% of the GDP, compared to only 22% from industry and a mere 0.74% from agriculture. It is therefore understandable that most people are employed in the service sector.
As a country of few natural resources, Belgium relies heavily on trade. Belgium imports significant amounts of raw materials and exports large volumes of manufactured goods, which leaves it vulnerable to global market fluctuations, although three-quarters of its trade is with other EU nations so exposure to currency fluctuations is limited. Far likelier are problems stemming from the international banking and financial services sector. In 2008, several Belgian banks required government assistance and one was partly nationalized.
The ABCs of Work Permits
EU nationals do not require a permit in order to start working in Belgium, but all third-state nationals should be aware of this additional obstacle before they can start their new job. However, the responsibility of obtaining a work permit for a foreign employee usually falls on the employer rather than on the employee. The following types of permits are available for people who want to start working in Belgium:
- A Permit: This one is an exception, as it is only aimed at foreigners who are already working in Belgium on a B Permit (see below). It is exclusively granted to people who have been employed in Belgium for a minimum of four out of ten years. The advantage of an A Permit over a B Permit is that holders of the former are no longer tied to a specific job and are permitted to change employers.
- B Permit: This is the permit your prospective employer needs to obtain on your behalf before you can start your new job in Belgium. It is valid for one year and commits you to the job for which it was originally granted. The challenge for the employer lies in proving that the vacancy cannot be filled by any current citizens or permanent residents of Belgium.
- C Permit: People with a limited-duration residency status, e.g. students or refugees, can apply for this permit if they want to take up temporary work in Belgium. C Permits are not tied to a specific job or employer.
We do our best to keep this article up to date. However, we cannot guarantee that the information provided is always current or complete.