Located in the north of Italy, Bologna is the largest and capital city of the Emilia-Romagna region. Its population of over one million people makes it the seventh most populous city in Italy, and one of the largest in the northern part of the country. It has historically been an important center of industry, as well as a major transport hub, and in 2011 was ranked the number one city in Italy in terms of quality of life. Of its population, around 90% are native Italians, with the largest groups of foreigners coming from other European countries, including Romania, Bulgaria, and Albania. There are also large Filipino and Bangladeshi communities in the city. The official language is Italian, but English is commonly spoken, especially amongst the younger generations, as it is now a compulsory subject in schools from an early age.
Expatriates moving to Bologna will need to adjust to a humid sub-tropical climate, which is characterized by hot, humid summers, and cold, damp winters. Due to Bologna's inland location, the sea has very little influence on the climate, and therefore it differs dramatically from coastal areas. In the summer months, temperatures can reach as high as 30.4°C (86.7°F), whilst in the winter it has been known to drop down to −0.5°C (31.1°F). Bologna is also known for its smog, which is caused by its moderate winds, humid climate, and heavy traffic. High winds are also common, due to the city's close proximity to Apennine Mountains and the Po Plain.
Whether or not you will need a visa to move to Bologna depends on your nationality. Italy is a member of the European Union, and therefore expatriates from EU/EEA nations and Switzerland will not need a visa to enter Italy or to move to Bologna for 90 days. After 90 days, they must register with the local authority in order to receive their residence card, which will allow them to live in Bologna indefinitely. Non-EU/EEA citizens, however, may need a visa to enter, and will need to apply for a permit to stay for longer than the 90 days permitted by a visa. In Italy, residence permits for foreigners from non-EU nations are packaged into work permits, so in order to move to Bologna, you must apply for a work permit, which will allow you to live and work in Italy for a specified period of time.