Located in south-eastern Europe on the Balkan Peninsula, Bosnia-Herzegovina has been an independent country since 1992. It is almost entirely landlocked, apart from a short coastline on the Adriatic Sea, and is bordered by Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro. The country is named after the two regions located within its borders, which do not have a border between them and are used to define regions of the country and not ethnicities. Due to its tumultuous history, Bosnia-Herzegovina has distinct demographics, and is the only country to call its main ethnic groups 'constituent peoples', of which there are three main groups: Bosniaks, Serbs, and Croats. These three groups account for the majority of Bosnia-Herzegovina's population of nearly four million people, but there are also large groups of Montenegrins, Albanians, and Romani, as well as a growing number of expatriates. Although the Bosnian constitution does not specify any official languages, the most widely spoken are Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian; English is also very commonly spoken in the major cities.
As Bosnia-Herzegovina has a diverse geography, including everything from urban areas to forests and mountainous regions, the climate will vary depending on where you are in the country. As a result, expatriates living in inland Bosnia-Herzegovina will experience a continental climate, whereas those moving to Bosnia-Herzegovina's southern coastal regions will need to adjust to a Mediterranean climate. The inland areas of the country are drier than many other regions with a similar climate, but rain is common all year round on the coast. The climate is at its most extreme in the mountainous areas inland, where short, cool summers give way to long, harsh winters with very cold temperatures. The southern part of Bosnia-Herzegovina is much warmer and has longer summers and less extreme winters.
Moving to Bosnia-Herzegovina is made relatively easy by its established transportation network and its close proximity to larger European nations. Many expatriates moving to Bosnia-Herzegovina will enter the country at its main international airport, Sarajevo International Airport, then continue their journey by road or by train. Although there are other airports located in the country, Sarajevo is the largest and best connected. Although Bosnia-Herzegovina does have a number of ports located on the River Sava, they are not suited for shipping furniture and belongings from around the world, as they are all located inland. Therefore, many expatriates moving to Bosnia-Herzegovina will have their belongings shipped to nearby European countries and then transported to Bosnia-Herzegovina by road or train. Bosnia-Herzegovina also has direct rail links with nearby Croatia, Serbia, and Montenegro.