There is a great range of industries to discover for expats seeking to work in Romania. The country has a rapidly expanding production of telecommunications products, and the aerospace industry is also growing. Key areas are machine-building, metals, textiles, and chemicals. These areas were the driving force behind the country’s economic growth during the first decade of the twenty-first century, as manufacturers started to make international exports rather than domestically. In 2007, for instance, these industries accounted for about 35% of the nation’s GDP.
Construction has risen and now accounts for about 10% of GDP, making Romania increasingly attractive for foreign property investors. One of the main construction projects ongoing at the moment is the new motorway expansion, as detailed in our section on transportation in Romania. Car manufacturing is also a boom area, with Romania’s own brands including Dacia, whose Logan model was the best-selling new car in Central and Eastern Europe in the first half of 2007.
Romania is also ahead of the game in Eastern Europe when it comes to IT, with about 64,000 specialists in this sector in 2013: the highest rate in all Europe and sixth in the world in terms of overall population. So there is plenty to offer workers coming to settle in Romania from abroad.
There are many avenues to help you land your dream job in Romania. National newspapers carry job listings, although these are typically printed in Romanian only. The Diplomat, Bucharest, Nine O'Clock and Ziarul Financiar all have an online presence in English, though.
There are several job seeking websites that can help bring you closer to your goal, including the British Council Romania (if you’re after a job teaching English), EURES - European Job Mobility Portal, and the National Agency for Employment (NAE) Romania (this site is in Romanian). The NAE is government-run and is Romania’s labor bureau. There are plenty of jobs available, but you’ll have to learn Romanian or work out how to translate the page.
It’s fairly straightforward to apply for a job in Romania, but there are some things that are done slightly differently to other countries. If writing an application letter, make sure it’s typed, although some companies ask for a handwritten letter. You don’t usually have to include evidence of your qualifications, although bringing them to interview can be handy and they will now be recognized by Romanian employers following EU guidance. Job interviews, like elsewhere, should focus on why you’re the ideal candidate for the job. Many positions will require two interviews, and it is fairly common for interviews to take place in English.
Romania has quite a good system of social security. An old-age pension is given to those who are insured in the first pillar (public system of pensions), upon reaching the standard retirement age and having made the minimum number of contributions. Retirement age (as of January 2015) for men is 65 and 59 years and 7 months for women. The minimum contribution period for both increased to 15 years in January 2015.
A survivor pension can be given to the spouse or child of a deceased person who was a pensioner in the first pillar or eligible for a pension. If the survivor is a spouse, they must have been married for at least ten years, and all recipients of survivor pensions must be of retirement age themselves.
Invalidity pensions are available to those who have lost at least half of their working capacity due to injury or disease. This includes workplace accidents and occupational diseases. There is no minimum contribution period to claim invalidity pension.
If you are involuntarily unemployed, you must claim an unemployment indemnity within 12 months of being out of work. You must be actively seeking work.
As an expat, you will be given a social security number and contributions are withheld by your employer. However, be aware that you may lose the payout on these should you move to another country if there is no social security agreements between Romania and this other nation.