Sudan provides a government funded healthcare system in conjunction with private providers. Sudan’s healthcare funding suffered as a result of the country’s split from South Sudan, which caused some instability in the state’s healthcare provisions.
To cope with this, Sudan operates healthcare via armed forces, parastatal organizations (such as Sudan Air and Railways), and additional insurance schemes where state provisions are insufficient.
The healthcare services are provided on three levels in Sudan; primary, secondary and tertiary. The country has developed a national health strategy that will continue to see the provision of services improve, and is working to provide universally accessible healthcare to all its population.
The private healthcare sector is concentrated around the major cities of Sudan, however, and focuses on curative care.
In general, General Practitioner services in Sudan are adequate, but for more serious illnesses hospital treatment is recommended. The four main hospitals in Khartoum are:
Sudan’s government operates a compulsory schooling system, provided free of charge to children between the ages of 6 to 13 years. The educational structure of Sudan is two-tier, with children undertaking primary education for approximately eight years, followed by secondary education for a further three years.
Sudan’s main language is Arabic and most schools teach in Arabic and follow a Muslim curriculum, including compulsory education on the Quran. The schools themselves are primarily located in urban areas as many outlying schools were destroyed during periods of civil unrest.
The estimated literacy rate for Sudan’s population is 70.2%, with males being provided with a wider education than females.
Sudan has 19 universities, again primarily taught in Arabic, although some of the larger institutions in Khartoum offer English study options as well. For details of higher education institutions, both public and private, and the entry routes, the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research offers guidance and advice for students wishing to enroll.
Sudan’s transportation infrastructure comprises rail, air, water, and highways. However, unlike many modern countries, Sudan’s highways are sparse in relation to the size of the country, comprising between 20,000–25,000 kilometers of all-weather road network across the 1,886,068 square kilometers territory.
The main railway services in Sudan run from the capital of Khartoum to the Egyptian border at Wadi Halfa and across to the south-west at Al-Ubayyid. The rail network comprises single track railroads with 4,578 kilometers of rail primarily serving the central and northern regions of the country.
The main Sudan Railway is operated by the government and still dominates the commercial transport sector; complemented by a further 1,400 kilometer rail line that services the cotton-growing region of Gezira in the south of the country.
Khartoum International Airport is the main airport, servicing Sudan with commercial, domestic, and international flights. Up to sixteen international airports provide flights into Khartoum, which is Sudan’s sole airport and is fully equipped with modern facilities.
Due to Sudan’s proximity to the River Nile, waterways still provide an important method of inland transportation. Although widely used for transport between Sudan and its neighboring countries, these are not the most efficient mode of transport for industry.