Sudan is officially known as The Republic of Sudan and is a country of North Africa, located in the Nile Valley. The third largest country in Africa, Sudan was home to a population of approximately 35.5 million in 2014.
Bordered by Egypt to its north, Chad to its west, and Libya to the northwest, Sudan is split into eastern and western halves by the Nile River, and its population throughout history has been influenced by the surrounding countries and their cultures, struggles, and colonization.
Today, Sudan is governed by the republican system of presidential government, and is an active member of the United Nations, the Organization of Islamic Movement, and the African Union, as well as an observer of the World Trade Organization.
Much of Sudan’s economy is centered on the capital of Khartoum, although Sudan’s largest city is actually the neighboring city of Omdurman, located on the opposite bank of the river Nile.
Sudan’s main religion has been Islam since the seventh century, although some of Sudan was also Christianized in the sixth century as a result of its proximity to Egypt.
Much of Sudan’s territory is comprised of large, flat plains, interspersed with several mountain ranges. The central and northern territories are primarily desert conditions with swamps and rainforests found in the south.
Much of the rainfall Sudan has is experienced in the south of the country, with up to six months of rainfall in the June to November rainy season. However, the north does experience a rainy season that is much shorter at just three months, between July and September.
The northern regions of Sudan are afflicted with sandstorms, colloquially known as ‘haboob’ and these diverse weather systems have led to many of Sudan’s farmers with livestock becoming nomadic as they move to different areas throughout the year that are able to support agriculture.
Sudan’s varied terrains and micro-climates have led Sudan to be rife with rich mineral deposits such as gold, silver, granite, tin, manganese, iron, aluminum, and many others.
Visas for entry and residence into Sudan must be applied for and issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in Khartoum.
For short business or tourism visits, an entry visa must be issued, which allows visitors to the country a stay of up to one month and takes between four to six weeks to process. Details of entry requirements and associated documentation can be sought from the Sudanese Embassy.
Expats who are moving to Sudan for an extended stay and residency must have a sponsor which can be one of the following:
Again, applications should be submitted to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs; this will then provide entrants to the country with an extended stay visa for up to 60 days, and during this time sponsors will be required to submit a further application for residency.