Cities in Italy’s industrial north, and particularly Turin, have weathered the economic crisis that has affected Italy and Europe better than other areas. The economy is based on automotive, agro-industry, electronics, and of course tourism. In 2008, Turin generated a GDP of 68 billion USD, making it the world’s 78th richest city by purchasing power. The aerospace industry, too, is a large part of the success of the Turin economy, with modules for the International Space Station produced in the city.
Many expats find work at one of the city’s institutions of higher learning, or teach English as a foreign language in Italy. There are numerous language schools; some offer the whole employment package with training, an employment contract, paying employee taxes and social security payments. Other schools prefer teachers to work on a freelance basis. Turin’s large number of universities means that there are always students seeking English tutoring, so work is generally quite easy to come by.
Every inhabitant of Italy must have a Codice Fiscale, a tax code, similar to the National Insurance number in UK or the Social Security number in US. It is necessary to apply for a residence permit, open a bank account, enter into a tenancy agreement, earn a salary, sign up for car insurance, and many other official matters.
All residents of Italy, whether of Italian nationality or not, are liable to pay a state income tax called IRPEF if they are registered in the Civil Registry for the greater part of the tax period. This is a progressive individual income tax. In addition, the regional tax IRAP applies to adjusted income from professional and business activities.
Fiscal residents are subject to tax on their worldwide income and a credit is typcially provided for taxes paid abroad.
Citizens from Schengen countries with a valid identity card or a passport can stay for up to three months without a permit. Those intending to stay for a longer period must obtain the aforementioned tax code, with each adult in the family requiring their own code. In order to work, you also need to obtain a Permit of Stay within eight days of arrival in Italy, which your employer will certify.
Non-EEA citizens may only stay in Italy for a maximum of 90 days and need a visa for longer stays or if they are planning on working in Turin. Your employer must obtain a work visa prior to your arrival in the country. If you are working for a non-Italian company, then you will need a Distacco Visa, which is a valid for two to three years, and is non-renewable. If you are to be employed by an Italian company, they will seek a Quota Visa.
The process for securing a work visa can be lengthy and complicated, and the government offices may request additional documents, such as marriage certificates or birth certificates of your children, preferably translated into Italian by an Italian Consulate. Spouse and accompanying family visas are issued for non-EU citizens, but this is not a working visa.