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Political Dimensions of Religion
Religious Freedom and Tolerance
The First Amendment grants everyone in the United States the right to worship freely as they see fit. Many organizations propagating religious freedom fight to make sure that the federal states abide by that law and do not interfere with religious practices. Some of these organizations focus on the rights of one specific religion, others on religious rights in general. For this reason, they often have a very different take on what religious freedom means.
Various court cases of very diverse nature have been fought to secure religious freedom for groups and individuals. Often people who did not belong to the Protestant majority filed a lawsuit for their right to practice their religion freely and safely. Prison inmates, for example, have often sued for their right to practice a non-Christian religion, such as Islam. In another case, which famously re-affirmed the freedom of religion, worshippers fought for their right to use peyote, most commonly used as a drug, in spiritual rituals – and won.
Moreover, there is a so-called “hate crime law” in the US, which includes crimes against a group or a person based on their race, religion, ethnicity, nationality, gender, sexual orientation, gender identity, or disability. The state prosecutes this kind of crimes quite harshly.
Due to the great religious diversity in the United States, followers of different religions enjoy general tolerance. However, many people, especially in areas with less cultural diversity, still are suspicious towards religious minorities. The situation for Muslims has gotten somewhat more difficult since the attacks on the World Trade Center in 2001. In the five days after the attacks, about 210 anti-Muslim incidents occurred, the most serious of which were investigated as hate crimes. Especially around the yearly anniversary of 9/11, when terrorism is extensively covered in the media, Muslim Americans complain about a climate of general Islamophobia in the US.
Religion and Politics
Despite the constitutional separation of church and state, religious groups may hold strong sociopolitical views and show a lot of commitment to these opinions, favoring the political activities of their churches or a recognizable influence of their religion on society. US candidates running for a political office recognized the impact of religious faith on voting decisions a long time ago and often use it during their campaigns. Many American citizens base their vote on who will represent their religious values the best, and some voters show a strong distrust towards non-Christian candidates.
These voters evaluate their candidates based on the religious “hot topics” rather than actual political experience – political topics on which certain religious groups have very strong opinions. Some politicians are thus very careful to voice no opinion whatsoever on some of these hot topics, knowing how much they divide the country. Current hot topics include, among others:
- Equal rights for homosexuals (especially same-sex marriage)
- Access to abortion
- Capital punishment
- Religion in public schools
- Abstinence-only sex education
Conservative Christian groups in particular are often involved in heated controversies concerning these and other issues. They consider the United States a country built on Christian principles. Therefore, they consider religious statements and upholding Christian values in politics extremely important while other parts of the population want to adhere to a clear-cut separation of church and state.
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