The most vital sectors of Uzbekistan’s economy are those built around the country’s natural resources, particularly minerals and cotton. The country is the world’s seventh largest producer of gold, mining approximately 80 tons per year. It is estimated that this precious metal makes up around 20% of total exports.
Uzbekistan also has sizeable reserves of natural gas, which is used both domestically and sold to other countries, oil that is consumed only domestically, and also a large amount of metals like copper, lead, zinc, tungsten, and uranium.
Agriculture is another important part of Uzbekistan’s economy. This area employs 25% of the country’s workforce and contributes 18% of its GDP. Roughly 10% of Uzbekistan’s total surface area is dedicated to farming, with cotton being the country’s main cash crop.
In 2013, the country’s GDP was 56.8 billion USD, with the country’s main export partners being China, Kazakhstan, Turkey, Russia, Bangladesh, and Kyrgyzstan.
Many of the expats working in Uzbekistan are employed as senior management professionals in the energy sector.
Uzbekistan’s immigration procedure can be broken down into different stages:
First, the company you will work for needs to acquire a Corporate Work License. This allows a company to hire a fixed number of foreign nationals. It is normally issued for six months to one year and can be further extended on a yearly basis. Work permits will also only be issued to a foreign person after it has been confirmation that no local candidates for the job can fill the vacancy in question.
Expats planning to work in Uzbekistan can then submit their work permit application to the Ministry of Labor. They will also need to acquire a Telex Number / Invitation Letter for a work visa from the host company, which has to be approved by the authorities. Based on such approval, foreigners can submit the application for the visa.
Apply for your work visa at the Uzbek consulate in your home country or country of residence. The visa is issued for a period of not more than 30 days, and for a single entry. After arrival, you must then register your address at the local police within three days, and it will be issued for the period of the initial visa.
Whether or not your work permit will be issued depends on the visa, signed employment contract, and a HIV test. You can typically extend your visa for the period of the work permit’s validity and will similarly need to extend your address registration.
Individuals are subject to tax in Uzbekistan based on their tax residency status. A fiscal resident is defined as an individual who is physically present in Uzbekistan for 183 days or more in any period up to 12 months ending in a calendar year.
Individuals who do not meet these criteria are classified as nonresidents. Residents are taxed on their worldwide income, while nonresidents are taxed only on their income that originates from Uzbekistan.